Gedmatch Generations

One of the tools on Gedmatch that is very useful but which causes some confusion is the column headed “Gen”, which means “Generations”. The number in this column means the estimated number of generations back to the common ancestor shared by you and your match. Whilst we easily understand that 2 generations back to a common ancestor means we are cousins, 3 generations back means we are second cousins and so on, but what confuses many people is how can you have in-between numbers like 2.6, 3.9, 4.1?

This number is to be understood as a guestimate or guideline that shows roughly how far back you might start looking for your common ancestor. To quote genealogist Kerry Scott, the generation estimates are “not etched in stone – they are etched in sand at best!” This is due to the random way that DNA is inherited between each generation – it is very common, once you get beyond a couple of generations, for a segment of DNA to remain intact and be passed down over several generations without changing. This means that the number of generations given with your match might also be exactly the same as that shown with your match’s parent or grandparent!

Another problem comes when you might be three generations back to a common ancestor and your match is from a closer generation and they are only two generations back to the same common ancestor. How do you work that out?!

So I had a look at the known connections I have with my genetic cousins who’ve uploaded to Gedmatch and this is the range of how Gedmatch calculated the generation distance to the most recent common ancestors and then I give the actual relationships. As you can see, the further distant the common ancestor, the more varied are the possible relationships.

Gen 1
Well, that’s easy – it’s always going to be a parent-child relationship

Gen 1.2
Oddly, this is always a sibling relationship

Gen 1.4
Half-sibling
Uncle ~ niece
Grandparent

Gen 1.5
Uncle ~ niece
This makes sense: the common ancestors for my uncle are his parents, which is 1 generation, but for me, his niece, it is my grandparents, 2 generations. Therefore, the Gedmatch Generation is calculated as being between 1 and 2 = 1.5

Gen 1.6
Uncle/aunt ~ niece/nephew
Grandparent

Gen 1.9
1C (first cousins), whose common ancestors are their grandparents, which is 2 generations

Gen 2.2
1C (first cousins)
1C1R (first cousins once removed)

Gen 2.3
1C1R (first cousins once removed)

Gen 2.5
1C1R (first cousins once removed)
Again, this makes sense: my cousin is a generation older than me, his grandparents, which is 2 generations, are my great-grandparents, which is 3 generations. Therefore, the Gedmatch Generation is calculated as being between 2 and 3 = 2.5

Gen 2.6
1C1R (first cousins once removed)
2C (second cousins)

Gen 2.9
2C (second cousins)

Gen 3.0
2C (second cousins)
This is the ideal scenario, with the common shared ancestors for me and my match both being 3 generations back.

Gen 3.3
2C1R (second cousins once removed)

Gen 3.5
2C1R (second cousins once removed)
Again, this makes sense: my second cousin is a generation older than me, her G-grandparents, which is 3 generations, are my GG-grandparents, which is 4 generations.Therefore, the Gedmatch Generation is calculated as being between 3 and 4 = 3.5
3C (third cousins)
2C2R (second cousins twice removed)
Here we have a case of our common ancestors being my G-grandparents, 3 generations, but these ancestors are my matches GGG-grandparents, 5 generations: a difference of two generations between me and my match

Gen 3.6
2C1R (second cousins once removed)
3C (third cousins)

Gen 3.7
2C1R (second cousins once removed)
3C (third cousins)
3C1R (third cousins once removed)

Gen 3.8
2C2R (second cousins twice removed)
3C (third cousins)

Gen 3.9
3C1R (third cousins once removed)

Gen 4.0
3C (third cousins)
This is the ideal scenario, with the common shared ancestors for me and my match both being 4 generations back.

Gen 4.1
2C1R (second cousins once removed)
2C2R (second cousins twice removed)
2C3R (second cousins three times removed)
This is quite an unusual because our shared common ancestors are my GGGG-grandparents, 6 generations back, but my match’s shared common ancestors are only his G-grandparents. That’s a difference of three generations, even though my match is just 10 years older than me! This is because I am descended from the eldest child of our common ancestor, but my match is descended from the youngest child, who was 25 years younger; and likewise my ancestors were the eldest of young parents, but my cousin’s parents and grandparents had children late in life, which resulted in this apparent shift of three generations even though me and my match are in the same present-day generation! Yes, just think about it for a moment 😀
3C1R (third cousins once removed)

Gen 4.2
2C1R (second cousins once removed)

Gen 4.3
3C (third cousins)

Gen 4.4
2C2R (second cousins twice removed)
3C (third cousins)
3C1R (third cousins once removed)
3C2R (third cousins twice removed)
4C (fourth cousins)
4C1R (fourth cousins once removed)

88 thoughts on “Gedmatch Generations

    • Thanks Pauline – I’m happy if it’s helpful for you. By the way, I really like your blog and enjoyed listening to your interview on Genies Down Under podcast last year 🙂

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    • You’re welcome, Kerryn. By the way, I like your website about your Irish ancestors – I have a great interest in Irish Australian history – my focus is on South Australia 🙂

      Liked by 1 person

  1. Thank you for this information. Can you provide information on how the descendants of half siblings (sister and brother) would show? The potential descendants are both males and their Estimated number of generations to MRCA = 2.5. After discovering this DNA connection, I am trying to determine the specific connection and from a chronological standpoint, it would make sense if one of the connection’s Mother and the other’s Father were half siblings. Is there a way to determine if this theory is correct? Or would I need to go an additional generation back in the case of half sibling descendants with a 2.5? Thanks in advance for your assistance!

    Largest segment = 72.6 cM
    Total of segments > 7 cM = 443.3 cM
    18 matching segments
    Estimated number of generations to MRCA = 2.5

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    • I can give you comparison with my family. I have tested and my half sister has tested and we’ve tested our children as well. Mine are the girls and hers are the boys.

      Megan and Jason:
      Largest segment = 48.3 cM
      Total of segments > 7 cM = 503.9 cM
      19 matching segments
      Estimated number of generations to MRCA = 2.4

      Megan and Jonathan:
      Largest segment = 54.2 cM
      Total of segments > 7 cM = 399.4 cM
      16 matching segments
      Estimated number of generations to MRCA = 2.6

      Amanda and Jason:

      Largest segment = 56.3 cM
      Total of segments > 7 cM = 564.1 cM
      20 matching segments
      Estimated number of generations to MRCA = 2.3

      Amanda and Jonathan:
      Largest segment = 60.1 cM
      Total of segments > 7 cM = 532.0 cM
      18 matching segments
      Estimated number of generations to MRCA = 2.4

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  2. Thanks Cate That was very helpful. I would think that when there is endogamy or multiple relationships to several grandparents involved this can throw off these estimates. For example, I have a known 4th cousin with whom I share 124 cM with the longest segment being 40 cM. Gedmatch estimates the relationship to be 3.4, which would be 2C1R. This cousin has 3 ancestors in common with me. He comes from a small Catholic community in rural Ontario, Canada, where there was a lot of cousin marriages, back in the 1800s.

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  3. Hi

    I would be very grateful if you could tell me what a half aunt/half niece would be. I measure mica 1.9 but don’t know if my match is a 1sr cousin or half niece. My father is either her uncle or her grandfather. Many many thanks if you could help me. Ali

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  4. Hi, I’m so lost. Gen has me at 1.6 with a person that is my mother’s first cousin .yet that person shares a paternal uncle with me. It was said her father was also my father. I tested with alledged father’s brothers son and got 1.6 too. We’ll known gen.said it’s like a have twin father’s but they wasnt. It just gets messier. The family doesn’t want me to be their fathers daughter. Tested with same persons full brother and he was higher in cms etc with me then the sisters. I’m female. Smh. Blessings. So confused and lost in this

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  5. This is interesting. But the 1.0 generation can also be identical twins, not just parent/ child. Or it could be yourself, with 2 different kits. As an example, I compared my own Ancestry kit to my own 23andMe kit — self to self — and got a match of 3587 cM, 22 segments, and estimated # of generations to MRCA = 1.0

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    • Thank you Cathy for your perceptive comments – yes, you’re quite right, particularly regarding identical twins which present some interesting problems for genealogists using DNA.

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  6. May want to add/edit; 1.9 Gen to MRCA can also be Half Niece or Nephew
    New found half nephew of my Mom matches at 1.9 gens on Gedmatch….

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  7. I am totally confused and am trying to figure all this out with help of my daughter. Can I compare with my 4th cousins from ancestry or do I have to start with what they give me?

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  8. I have tested and two of my full siblings have tested, a first cousin has also tested and shows as first cousin to myself and my two siblings and we also have a 2nd cousin to all of us who has tested. She shows as a second cousin to myself and my first cousin, which she is. My sister’s distance is 3.6 and my brother’s is 3.8 (same as my daughter). We also have a 2nd cousin, 1X removed. She didn’t upload to Gedmatch but on Ancestry her cMs fit where they should with me, my sister, my first cousin but not with my brother. The 2nd cousin and the 2nd cousin 1x removed are descended from my grandfather’s sister so I’m guessing that they may have inherited more DNA from great grandparent and my brother from the other.

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  9. Me and a supposed 7th cousin are losing our minds. Our cm match on gedmatch is about 40 cm which seems to be way too high for 7th cousins, and it gives us a 4.1 generation match, which is obviously much earlier too. But, a descendant from the same couple has a 26 cm match to me, and is descended through a different child of the couple than my 7th cousin. Is it possible we could have this high a match after so many generations? Tables for 7th cousin give numbers like range= 0-10 cm, average=7 cm. And, we are much higher than that….. thanks alot, MB

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    • Yes, 40cMs is too high for 7th cousin, unless you are from a family with known endogamy issues – that is, families who have a long history of cousins intermarrying, such as Ashkenazi Jewish or Syrian-Lebanese or Polynesian, as such like. The other explanation might be that you match that person on two separate branches of your family and you have yet to find where that other match might be. I have had this in my own family tree where a 4th cousin on my father’s side was also a 6th cousin on my mother’s side. This happens a lot in colonial families.

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  10. Is this chart of generations a definite list. Could someone who is 1.5 be a half sibling or only a niece or nephew? The chart says 1.4 is half sibling and uncle niece for 1.5.

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    • No, this is definitely not a ‘definite list’ 🙂
      This is just the range I have found in my own research, just from my own DNA results and matches.
      So, a half sibling and/or uncle-niece will fall within the range of 1 – 2, depending on how much shared DNA there is. I recently worked on a client case where we were trying to figure out that exact type of question: Is this relationship a cousin or is it half uncle-nephew? But within out solving the case by means of traditional genealogy research, it was not possible to determine from DNA alone. That is, there is no definitive way of proving a relationship based on the amount of DNA alone or of the suggested generation distance – you need to sleuth it which is the ‘correct’ relationship by using other methods. BUT, DNA is where you start 🙂

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    • My children are half-siblings. Their MRCA=1.5.
      Comparing our kits, my daughter and I have 31 matching segments. My son and I have 28 matching segments.

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  11. Can you tell me where gen 4.6 would fall on your list? I have 2 DNA cousins through Gedmatch that triangulate with me. But we can’t find our MCRA. Knowing the generation(s) to look at would help greatly!
    Thanks!

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    • It’s important to remember that the further back in generations, the more factors influence the range of possible relationships. Gen 4.6 should be treated like I’ve mentioned for my results of 4.4 – there is a great number of possible combinations. Also, at that far back, it might also be influenced by others factors such as cousins intermarrying which will make your common ancestor appear to be closer than it actually is. I have a gen 4.2 match and we can’t find the common ancestor but we know they come from an English village where many families intermarried over the centuries, which means our actual common ancestor might be 7 or 8 generations back!

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  12. Thanks for the explanation! Very helpful, as gedmatch can be confusing. One thing, my grandmother shows as 1.5 generations – a bit confusing, as she’s 2 generations from me. Any thoughts?

    Liked by 1 person

    • I just checked my daughter’s matches to her grandparents and I’ve added that relationship to the ones listed in my blog. Yes, you would expect it to say 2 generations but for some reason that I can’t explain, it does seem to come up as around 1.5 – a glitch in the system?

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      • This is the part that is so puzzling to me. I really appreciate the detail of your blog. Thank you for all that you are doing to help us better understand the generation index. I, too, have the same question as Karin T. My grandmother and I share generation index of 1.5 but I am two generations from her. She is related to herself as a one and to me as a two which makes it 1.5. It all makes sense when you know the actual relationships, but when you don’t know the relationship it’s very difficult to determine how you are related. How can we fix this?

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      • Thanks for comments. As for how to fix this? That is indeed the question! But it is also what makes DNA & genealogy such a challenge and what hooks me in 😉

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    • Hi Jerry,
      Yes, Gen 3.1 would suggest common ancestors who are great-grandparents. However, this is not a ‘rule’ – it depends on other factors such as the possibility of a ‘half’ relationship (only sharing one common ancestor), or if the two people being compared might be a generation apart themselves (the match is considerably older or younger than the person whose results are shown), or if there is endogamy issues (in communities where there are cousins intermarrying, which ‘doubles’ the amount of shared DNA and therefore shows up as a closer generational relationship in Gedmatch than is actually the case)

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      • Thanks for the explanation. The common issue I am encountering is like this 3.1 who my father shares 207.7 cM Total 33.2 Largest is in my tree as a 5th Cousin. Is it common to be that far off. While we certainly had a lot of cousins marrying cousins in Covington County, Mississippi, I also have a known Graves line and my father’s paternal great-grandfather is unknown. I do have 4 Y-DNA37 Graves. One at a genetic distance of 3 and three at a genetic distance of 4. Two of these matches run through this same line as my known Graves line which runs through my grandmothers, mother. So I have both paternal and maternal, and since my paternal is not known at the moment, my tree readings are picking up the known relationship, which seems to be a longer route to the MRCA. A few more examples:
        Total Largest Gen
        DP – 124.9 48.2 3.4 In Tree as 4th Cousin
        BD – 109.0 23.6 3.5 In Tree as 5th Cousin
        BD – 102.6 42.6 3.6 In Tree as 5th Cousin
        RB – 64.1 16.9 3.9 In Tree as 5th Cousin 1x Removed
        Most of my Graves matches are accurate according to the chart, and I have many of them. These all seem to be older matches, 5th – 7th Cousin range. It’s these higher cM matches that I thinking may be coming from this unknown great-grandfather.

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    • Hi Jeanine,
      These results are just what I have found in my own personal DNA research. They are not a set of rules – just how the DNA dice rolled in my own family 🙂

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  13. Hello,this information is quite informative. I do have a question about info that is missing. What is a 1.7 generation match. I have someone that showed up in my matches and I am not sure how we are matched.

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    • Hi Syvellia,
      These figures are reporting what I’ve found in my own personal DNA research. There are many factors that will influence what the actual relationship is for an indication of 1.7 generations. Depending on the age difference between you and your match, the indication would be the match is your aunt/uncle or niece/nephew or grandparent or grandchild. It is also possible for the match to be a half-sibling or a first cousin. But at any rate, this person is certainly a close family member.

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      • Thank you, there is a 20 year age difference so there is no way she could be my grandchild. I am 43 she is 23.

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      • What is more important than the suggested generational difference is the actual amount of DNA you share. What is the total amount you share? It is possible that this is a half-relationship. You can use Gliesian’s DNA calculator to see what range of relationships are possible – it is an excellent tool. If you have any further questions, please feel free to contact me directly at gengenaus@gmail.com

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  14. Great info. I tested with my great uncle (my grandfather’s brother) and we are 2.3 gen. in another matter, have you observed that two men might have closer gen matches than a man to a woman? My mom matches 5.1 to a certain person but her brother matches 3.8 to same person. My mom and brother are full siblings. That seems like a lot of leeway.

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    • Hiya – yes, that does seem some leeway, but it is definitely not related to gender, which has no bearing at all on autosomal DNA results. However, it is not uncommon to get wide variances between siblings when the distance is more than three generations – it is just the luck of the roll of the DNA dice if you inherit enough DNA from a more distant ancestor to show up at all! The more distant the ancestor, the wider variation in the Gedmatch ‘guestimates’ of generational distance.

      Liked by 1 person

  15. I can confirm that MRCA=1.0 when run against my identical twin. Here are our numbers:
    Largest segment = 263.5 cM

    Total Half-Match segments (HIR) = 3583.2 cM (100.0 Pct)
    Estimated number of generations to MRCA = 1.0

    107352 SNPs used for this comparison.

    100.0 Pct SNPs are full identical

    Comparison took 0.39703 seconds.
    Ver: Sep 12 2017 16:38:56

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  16. Did a GEDMatch one to one comparison with a cousin I’m pretty sure is a 3rd cousin twice removed, but MRCA estimation of 4.8 really threw a curve ball as to whether we would be considered 3rd cousins twice removed or fourth cousins. Same thing with a another cousin that is 4.9 gen of our most recent common ancestor.

    Me and My Cousin D.B.
    Largest segment = 17.5 cM
    Total of segments > 7 cM = 17.5 cM
    1 matching segments
    Estimated number of generations to MRCA = 4.8

    Me and My Cousin C.R.
    Largest segment = 15.8 cM
    Total of segments > 7 cM = 15.8 cM
    1 matching segments
    Estimated number of generations to MRCA = 4.9

    Any help would be helpful.

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  17. I did the GEDMatch one to one comparison with a cousin that I’m pretty sure is a 3rd cousin twice removed. However, the 4.8 generation estimation to our MRCA really threw a curve ball of whether we fall into the category of being 3rd cousins twice removed or 4th cousins. Same with another cousin who I considered a 3rd cousin twice removed and our MRCA estimation is 4.9 generations back.

    Me and My Cousin D.B.
    Largest segment = 17.5 cM
    Total of segments > 7 cM = 17.5 cM
    1 matching segments
    Estimated number of generations to MRCA = 4.8

    Me and My Cousin C.R.
    Largest segment = 15.8 cM
    Total of segments > 7 cM = 15.8 cM
    1 matching segments
    Estimated number of generations to MRCA = 4.9

    Any help would be nice.

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    • This is not at all unusual and it just goes to show that the further distant the relationship, the more unreliable the suggested Gedmatch generational difference becomes. Remember, this is just a guide – a suggestion from Gedmatch about how far back you might look to connect. As you can see from my own results above, at 4.4 I had a very wide range of actual relationships, including 3C2R. It doesn’t mean you need to look for other answers beyond what you have already ascertained of being 3C2R – you have the right answer 🙂

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  18. Can someone help me please. I loaded my info on gedmatch and this came up in comparison to someone I don’t know. What does it mean? I read everything on this post but I am still confused.
    This is a one to one match:
    Largest segment = 43.5 cM
    Total of segments > 7 cM = 96.9 cM
    4 matching segments
    Estimated number of generations to MRCA = 3.6
    Thanks.

    Like

    • Thank you for your question 🙂
      It is likely that you and this person share a common ancestor which is likely to be one set of your great-great-grandparents, which would make you third cousins; or it might mean this person’s great-grandparents are your great-great-grandparents, which would make you second cousins once removed.

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  19. Largest segment = 85.4 cM
    Total of segments > 7 cM = 734.3 cM
    24 matching segments
    Estimated number of generations to MRCA = 2.1

    Could you please tell me what 2.1 means I cannot find it anywhere

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  20. This is a great chart to have handy! My grandparents on my fathers side of the family were 1st double cousins! My comparison to my first cousin is as follows!
    Largest segment = 105.3 cM
    Total of segments > 7 cM = 1,101.4 cM
    37 matching segments
    Estimated number of generations to MRCA = 1.9

    Thanks
    Margo

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      • This is my other first cousin on to one compare! The first one I sent was one of my Dads sister’s child! This one is My Dads brothers child!
        Largest segment = 107.8 cM
        Total of segments > 7 cM = 911.9 cM
        32 matching segments
        Estimated number of generations to MRCA = 2.0

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      • Here are my two 1st cousins, to each other!
        Largest segment = 102.9 cM
        Total of segments > 7 cM = 1,145.8 cM
        48 matching segments
        Estimated number of generations to MRCA = 1.8

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  21. What about the instance of a niece aunt where the aunt is a half-sibling to the niece’s parent. This is a situation I am dealing with currently. I believe someone it matched me with may be either my half-Aunt or a 1stcousin once removed (fathered either by my grandfather or his brother) due to the location the person was born and adopted from. My grandfather is deceased my father has submitted a sample for testing. My GEDmatch is MRCA of 2.6. Is there a way to sort this out just between the three people we have tested so far?

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    • Hi Erin,
      More important than the predicted generation difference is the actual amount of shared DNA. Half-aunt will be around 850cMs, whereas 1C1R will be about half that. However, a first cousin is about the same as a half-aunt, which can be tricky. I had a case just like this recently. How many cMs do you share? Feel free to contact me by email on gengenaus@gmail.com to continue this conversation. Cheers, Cate

      Like

  22. Hi,
    I have recently found a second half cousin, she is showing up as 2.9 generation, her grandmother and my grandmother were half siblings, I share 292 cM with her… are they average figures for 2nd half cousins?

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      • Ok thank you, yes we do share a great grandfather who married twice, first to my 2nd cousins great grandmother then after her death to my great grandmother…. thank you for your help.

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  23. I have read everything on thus thread..so helpful. So my situation : I have two matches ( I know who they are) this is a mass suename effort. These two people are 2 generations older than me. The gen spread of our mrca, is 4.0, this is a huge genealogy breakthrough to connect the families. They are in their 90s. One a 56cM, the other 58.9. So do count back 4 gen from them, or me..or neither? I’m leaning to believe that we are cousins 2r? Sharing gg (g) ? Grandparents.;.am I on the right track?

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    • Good question Jan 🙂
      In this case, where there is a two generation difference, it is best to ignore the suggested generational distance and focus on the amount of shared DNA. It seems like a possible second cousins twice removed: that is, their great-grandparents are your great-great-great-grandparents! Anyway, check out http://www.dnapainter.com > Tools > “Shared cM tool v4”. If you upload the DNA amount in that tool, it’ll show you a range of possible relationships. Good luck 🙂

      Like

    • This list is just the connections that I’ve found in my own list of matches, so it just means I didn’t have any family connections that were exactly 2.0 🙂

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  24. Thank you for this. I didn’t read all the comments to see if this had been remarked upon.

    You note that Gens 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 4.0, and 4.3 may be third cousins; but you don’t designate that for 3.9, 4.1, and 4.2.

    A more sophisticated reader will probably discern that the missing ones are implied, and that this is only from your personal data, but perhaps you could add 3C to the others in order to keep from confusing newer genetic genealogists.

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    • Thank you for your observation – as you’e noted, this post wasn’t intended to be comprehensive coverage of all possibilities, which are as you’ve noted with third cousins being a possibility for the full range between 3.5 and 4.3, these are simply the results from my own DNA matches.

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  25. Thank you so much for your information. I’m curious, I am comparing myself to my wife. I am curious how far back you would have to go to find a common ancestor. The results I get are:
    Minimum threshold size to be included in total = 500 SNPs
    Mismatch-bunching Limit = 250 SNPs
    Minimum segment cM to be included in total = 7.0 cM

    Largest segment = 0.0 cM
    Total of segments > 7 cM = 0.0 cM
    (2228) No shared DNA segments found
    So, I would assume that means that we have no common ancestor within some generational distance, such as at least 6 generations. Do you have any idea what generational limit is implied by the standard parameters and do you have any suggestion on how to tweak the parameters to get an idea of how far back we would have to go for an estimate?

    Thanks
    Randy

    Like

    • Hi Randy, If you ‘tweak’ the parameters so that the segment size is less than 7cMs, then you may well find you share segments with your wife. However, when you are dealing with such small segments a number of ‘false’ matches will occur due to statistical coincidence called Identical By Chance (IBC) which you can read about on the ISOGG Wiki: ‘Identical by Descent’ or Roberta Estes’s excellent blog post: ‘Concepts – Segment Size’

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    • Good question Jim. The amount of DNA shared by half-siblings is approximately 1700-1800cMs and is the same as that shared between grandparent/grandchild, and aunt-uncle/niece-nephew. Therefore, the Gen number will read as around 1.4 or 1.5.

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    • I find that interesting considering how much of a stretch it would be to find a fifth cousin, once removed within a estimated 4.6 gen. So far, I found a third cousin, a third cousin once removed and a third cousin twice removed within the 4.6 gen. You must’ve got one great paper trail 🙂

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